Wednesday, February 12, 2020
A SWOT analysis explores the relationship between the environmental influences and the strategic capabilities of an organisation - Essay Example Critically speaking, it is a fact that an internal strategic capability analysis puts the entire focus on the way the environment gets in contact with the product that is marketed under the aegis of an organization. The direct link with the competitors is always apparent in the case of one such analysis. However, what is most important here is that the product is compared against its own basis nonetheless. The manner in which the link between the environmental influences and the strategic capabilities of an organization is made clear is something that brings sanity within the realms of an organization. It puts the basis right of many an undertakings within the business enterprise and tells the senior management where they are going wrong and what corrective steps need to be taken under their aegis (Devane, 2007). Therefore a SWOT analysis is a good enough beginning for finding out where the product is at a particular period in time. It finds out where it will be in a given time as we ll. This is important because the product within the aegis of an organization is moving from one position to another, and discerning new avenues of growth and development all this while. This consistent race to reach the coveted top position within the industrial settings ensure that the product will bring in new standards and advancements to make sure success comes about in full circle (Richter, 2009). The SWOT analysis would eventually be the difference between how things are being managed and how these shall be taken care of in the coming days. It is of fundamental significance to realize the gravity of the situation at hand because the SWOT analysis presents a clear cut picture of where the strengths and weaknesses lie within the internal realms and how the opportunities can be cashed upon and the threats be reduced to larger proportions. The entire understanding of the SWOT analysis emanates from finding out where the organizations are being handled properly and where they are losing ground on most of the occasions. However it is always a difficult proposition to begin with and it is imperative to know how the product under the realms of an organization aims to determine its strong points and the problems that lie close to its own basis. In keeping with this discussion, this paper tries to establish the link between the environmental influences and the strategic abilities and capabilities so that a better understanding of the product and indeed the organization is made in the long range scheme of things. Essentially the use of the PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s Five Forces Model suggests that success could only be achieved within the SWOT analysis if proper efforts and undertakings are incorporated within it. This would mean that the new entrants are tapped, their threats are analyzed and foreseen and the required steps are taken beforehand to thwart any hiccups that may so arise at a later point in time. The PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s Five Forces Model is indicative of the fact t hat the SWOT analysis will be done in an effective and efficient manner. It highlights the exact ways and means through which different threats are analyzed and thus countered with the passage of time (see Appendix 1). These five forces surround the discussion of the new entrants which could come about at any
Friday, January 31, 2020
PsyInfo (tools to success) - Essay Example I can remember all the times I was sad as a kid, birthdays, holidays, Christmas time. I didn't know that growing up without money may have tied my parents down some and that they may have even felt like giving up in their lives. It was as if we were all embarrassed at living. Today I can look back and understand and appreciate some of these pressures of poverty, that they can really affect communication among family members and in a sense stunt the emotional growth and health that is needed. Feeling apart from others, isolated and unique in that way, I could no longer avoid states of depression. Today I see these states as important. In a child, one who is rebelling, they could lead into all kinds of mental illnesses if they are not properly attended to. Finally I met an individual who would change my life by the example of his own life. I had managed to get a job working in a store. I was about 17 at the time and was no longer going to school. The manager was one of the most busy pe rsons I had every met in my life. The store was a franchise type and was open 24 hours. When I got in in the early morning he was their taking inventory. When I left he was in the back stacking up inventory. He wasn't an old man, he was like middle age. I found out he spent his afternoons at business school. This man never took me personally.
Thursday, January 23, 2020
Bembo's Discourse on Love The idea of the Renaissance Gentleman. Just as it is false to see the Renaissance as a simple and sharp contrast with the Middle Ages, as did Michelet and Burckhardt, neither should it be seen as all of one piece. After the age of civic humanism came the dominance of the Medici in Florence, and in those contacts made with eastern scholars when the Council of Florence was attempting the reconciliation of the Eastern and Western Churches (a last effort to stave off the menace of the Turk) Cosimo de'Medici had been attracted to the figure of Plato. So there came his patronage of Marsilio Ficino and the birth of the Platonic Academy. Ficino became the disciple of Plato, and an advocate of neo-Platonism. Perhaps coincidentally, but as befits a court, the contemplative ideal began once more to gain over the active one. It was transmitted potently to Europe by a book that mirrored one of the noblest of Italian courts, that of Urbino. This was Baldassar Castiglione's Il cortegiano/The Book o f the Courtier). Published in 1528 (that is, after the Sack of Rome, 1527) it has a nostalgic vision of the civilisation nurtured in Urbino from the time of Federigo da Montefeltro, in one of the most beautiful of princely palaces. Apart from offering in its close the neoplatonic idea to Europe, it recommended not so much the status of the courtier, as the ideal of the gentleman. There is no other comparable book that encapsulated the ideals of the Italian Renaissance, and its European success ensured the diffusion of the message. (Penguin Hutchinson Reference Library Copyright (c) 1996 Helicon Publishing and Penguin Books Ltd) Renaissance Humanism became increasingly concerned with the self and the fashioning of the self. In Il Cortegiano (The Courtier), published in 1528, Conte Baldassare Castiglione's ideal courtier is an exponent of the latter. The education or the self-fashioning of the courtier involves almost everything under the sun. Therefore, as the courtier must learn the proper skills of war, he must also learn how to love. Love, the deportment of the courtier towards court-ladies, keeps recurring in the conversation in the court at Urbino during the discourses of all four nights and the many controversies generated by Gaspar Pallavicino, Lord Julian, and Bernard Bibiena all involve love and culminate ultimately in Pietro Bembo's inspired Platonic exposition. Here, however, are a few problems.
Wednesday, January 15, 2020
Table of Contents Executive Summary Often when a company is looking to expand its operations to foreign markets they have an overall goal to create revenue and increase profit. Entering new markets can be an excellent opportunity for companies to utilize core competencies and increase value to the company. This paper will define global strategy and research the best strategies to use when expanding operations to international markets. Recommendations and conclusions will also be defined for when entering a foreign market, thus expanding operations. Because of the increased competition in international markets global strategies are more important then ever. When developing a strategy not only does a company deal with lower cost pressures, but also pressures for local responsiveness, and a need to adapt to differences in consumer preferences. This also can change the way the business on a whole is carried out. A company must choose a strategy that will help it best adapt to those pressures, as well as one that stays aligned with its overall strategic goals. Entering into a new international market seems like a good idea for most businesses, but requires lots of research and planning to be successful. The first decision to be made is what market to enter. New emerging markets with large populations allow for continued economic growth and an opportunity to add value to a product. The timing and scale of entry into a market can be also very important, for many companies in a new market the first mover advantage is one that comes with lots of benefits, including capture of market share. If the company penetrates the market with a significant presence they are likely to send a message to consumers that they are in the market for the long-term. Selecting a mode of entry into a new market heavily relies on the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s core competencies, and how much control is desired. For some companies, creating a strategic alliance with a competitor is the best entry method into a new market. By creating an alliance with a competitor allows a company to enter a new market with less risk, and also gives the opportunity to learn about the new market from the alliance partner. Introduction International markets have become increasingly competitive recently because of liberalization of trade and investment environments. Due to this, companies entering the global marketplace must be more strategic to make a profit. Ã¢â¬Å"A company must have a strategy to reduce costs and create value as well as to differentiate its products from others, in order to be profitable in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s foreign markets.Ã¢â¬ It is highly important for a company to work to reduce costs while, at the same time increase the perceived value of its products and differentiate product offerings, in comparison to its competitors. By creating more value on a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s products, the more its customers will be willing to spend. By creating a product that is more appealing to the consumer through design, functionality, and quality, as well as lowering costs to produce the product, a company can create value in the eyes of the consumer. The primary activities involved in creating value for a product are research and development, production of products, marketing and sales, and the service and support being provided to the customers. Because of differences between the markets in various countries it is potentially beneficial Ã¢â¬Å"for each value creation activity to be based where factor conditions are most conclusive to the performance of that activity,Ã¢â¬ otherwise know as location economies. By doing this, the company is working towards a low cost strategy for value creation. When a firm is considering entering a market in a foreign country, it must carefully decide what market to enter, when to enter, and at what scale it should enter. These decisions should be heavily based on long-run growth and profit potential within the market. A firm will often expand into international markets in an attempt to earn greater return from their technological or manager know-how; also know as a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s core competenc y. As well as being faced with many cost reduction pressures, a company expanding globally is also likely to be faced with pressures for local responsiveness. When doing business in another country there will likely be a difference in customer preferences that will need to be met, differences in infrastructure, and the way of doing business such as distribution channels. Lastly, any demands that may be made by the host government (regulations) must be taken into consideration as well. These are all factors that need to be considered when a company is contemplating expanding to foreign markets, and choosing a proper global strategy. Global Strategy Strategy is defined as any actions a manager takes to attain the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s goals. The main goal for a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy is generally to maximize their profit. Due to increased competition in many foreign markets, companies are forced to look at all of these strategies and see which are best for them when moving forward in the global marketplace, to be most successful. Strategic Choices A firm will generally use one of four basic strategies to enter and compete within the global marketplace. They are as follows: International Strategy, Multi-domestic Strategy, Global Strategy, or a Transnational Strategy. The strategy a company chooses can depend upon how much it needs to cut costs, and the differences it must adapt to within the new market. A company choosing an International Strategy works to create value by bringing valuable skills and products to global markets where competitors donÃ¢â¬â¢t employ the same skills. The company will transfer successful products to foreign markets, while also creating some local customization. For a company following an international strategy, many decisions including manufacturing and marketing decisions, will be localized to the country that they are doing business in. An example of a company using an international strategy is McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s. In Japan they offer old favorites as well as the Korean KBQ Burger. When a company chooses a Multi-domestic strategy many key responsibilities and decisions become localized. The product offerings, marketing strategy and business strategy are customized to be successful in each market. Along with this strategy comes a mentality where management sees all foreign operations as independent businesses within the firmsÃ¢â¬â¢ portfolio. A drawback of this strategy is because new value creation activities are employed within each market. A company may not get advantage from the experience curve benefits, and end up with a high cost structure. Companies pursuing a Global Strategy are generally also pursuing a low-cost strategy. Because of this, the company generally will not customize the product offerings between different foreign markets. A global firm will prefer a standard set of products offered through all of its markets whereÃ they can use the cost advantage to allow for aggressive pricing tactics in foreign marketplaces. Because of the competitive nature of many marketplaces around the world many companies have no choice but to employ a transnational strategy. For a company that employs this strategy, it involves focus on reducing costs, transferring skills and products to new markets, and increasing local responsiveness. Because of all of the pressures that are involved with a transnational strategy, they can be difficult and complex to implement. Strategic Alliances Ã¢â¬Å"As opposed to a firm entering a foreign market on itÃ¢â¬â¢s own, they may form a strategic alliance with a potential or actual competitor.Ã¢â¬ A strategic alliance is defined as a cooperative agreement among competitors from different countries. By creating a strategic alliance with a competitor, a company can more easily enter a new foreign market. Within a strategic alliance a company will share many fixed costs with the alliance partner company, which can also potentially reduce operational costs such as training and purchasing costs. Because of these factors a strategic alliance can be beneficial for a company striving for an overall goal of lowering costs. Ã¢â¬Å"The alliance is cooperation or collaboration, which aims for a synergy where each partner hopes that the benefits from the alliance, will be greater than those from individual efforts.Ã¢â¬ Although a strategic alliance has many benefits for a firm that is entering a market they have never competed in befo re, there are also risks that should be considered. ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s the possibility of giving competitors low-cost access to new technology and markets, which they may not have had access to before. It is also important for a company to choose the right partner to ensure they are benefiting equally from the alliance. The proper partner for a firm will help achieve its own strategic goals, but will also have a shared vision for the purpose of the alliance. Any company that is looking to enter a strategic alliance with a competing company should do a proper background checks with public sources, and anyone that has maybe worked with the other firm in the past. It is also important to get to know the potential partner before immediately creating an alliance to ensure the chemistry is right between the management teams. Once an alliance has been created it is important for it to be managed properly, in order to be successful in itsÃ overall strategic goals. It is vital for the once competing companies involved in the strategic alliance, to build trust with one another. If there isnÃ¢â¬â¢t mutual trust built within the relationship it Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦can lead to competition rather than cooperation, to loss of competitive knowledge, to conflicts resulting from incompatible cultures and objectives, and to reduced management control.Ã¢â¬ Sometimes building personal friendships between members of each partner can help to create stronger trust within the business relationship as well. Entering a Foreign Market Although there is no clear-cut choice on how a company should enter a new market there are guidelines of things that should be considered and done before entering into a new market. A firm must first decide which market they should enter, then how it will enter the market, and finally at what scale and time it should make its entry. Not only is it important to research whether or not a specific business has viability within the market, you also need to assess the value that will be added to the market you are looking into entering. Ã¢â¬Å"Greater value translates into an ability to charge higher prices and/or build sales volume more rapidly.Ã¢â¬ Choosing A Market When a firm is researching different countries and their marketplaces to determine what market to enter, the appeal of a certain country will depend on balancing benefits, costs and risks that come with doing business in that particular country. Ã¢â¬Å"The largest compiler of data about foreign markets in the world is the U.S. Department of Commerce. Some of this information is available free and some involves paying a small fee. Other federal agencies also provide significant amounts of data that is available on their websites.Ã¢â¬ There are also many private agencies that can help a company find information regarding a new market. Ã¢â¬Å"Such groups as industry & trade organizations, local chambers of commerce and other business development groups provide a wealth of information about foreign markets.Ã¢â¬ When searching for a new or emerging market to enter it is important for a company to look at nations which are politically stable, and that have free market systems. These qualities are more likely to provide long-term economic growth and a larger capacity for such growth. Many companies that have expanded operations globally have gone to China and India in order toÃ lower costs, as well to take advantage of the availability of growth, due to the large populations. Entry Timing Once a company has done its research and chosen a market to enter they must then decide an appropriate time to enter the said market. A major advantage for a firm is when they are the first foreign firm to enter an emerging market, also know as first mover advantage. When a company is the first to enter a market, it is given the opportunity to capture demand within the market, and establish a strong brand name and recognition, before any of its competitors move in. Ã¢â¬Å"The firm gains the opportunity to build up sales volume and ride down the experience curve before rivals have a chance, giving the firm a cost advantage that later entrants into the market wont have.Ã¢â¬ This will enable the firm to cut prices and increase profits. Emerging Markets For a business looking to move into an international market, an emerging economy within a large market could be a favorable option as there is likely to be more growth potential for companies that are early movers. Emerging markets often provide benefits to the company such as lower costs, and the opportunity to become industry specialists. It can be a major advantage for companies to enter countries with large emerging markets, such as China and India in an effort to reduce costs and in turn generate more profit. Although being an early mover within an emerging market comes with these advantages; there can also be the disadvantage of pioneering costs. If business in the foreign country is done differently then in the home country the firm will need to spend time, energy and money on learning the rules of doing business within the host country. A firm that enters later into a market can avoid some of these costs by learning from what other companies have done, implement stronger strategies. Scale of Entry Once it has been determined which market to enter, and when is the best time to enter, a company must decide whether to enter the market and slowly expand its operations, or enter in a big way, at one time. To make this decision the firm must examine any strategic commitments that may be involved when entering the market, as it could have long-term impact thatÃ canÃ¢â¬â¢t be easily reversed. Entering a market in a big way can mean major strategic commitment and can be hard to reverse but could pay off. If a company is entering a market on a significant scale customers and distributors are more likely to believe the company will remain in the market long term and will in turn attract more customers. However if a company invests too much to enter one market at a significant scale it could mean not being able to expand to other markets. By entering small-scale to a foreign market, the firm has more opportunity to learn more about the market before creating any major risks to it. This will limit potential losses but could cause the company to miss out on all of the advantages reaped by the first movers. Modes of Entry to Foreign Markets Ã¢â¬Å"The mode of entry is a fundamental decision a firm makes when it enters a new market because the choice of entry automatically constrains the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s marketing and production strategy. The mode of entry also affects how a firm faces the challenges of entering a new country and deploying new skills to market its product successfully.Ã¢â¬ A company has many different modes of entry to choose from, all with their own advantages and disadvantages. Modes of Entry Alternatives Exporting Ã¢â¬â A company choosing to export will produce a good or service within the home country and sell it in the new market. Exporting can be low cost for the company as well as can be beneficial for the company to get experience doing business within the new market. Although the company may save money on manufacturing, they are also likely to be paying higher transportation costs to export the product to the new market. Manufacturing firms often begin with exporting products to enter a foreign market, before switching to another mode. Turkey projects Ã¢â¬â A company that chooses to develop a turnkey project will hire a contractor, who will handle all of the details on setting up a firm within the new market. Once the contract is complete the firm is handed the key to the business, which will be ready and full operational for the company to take over and begin work in the new market. When choosing a turnkey project the company should ensure that the new market is within a country with stable political and economic conditions, to make the investment less risky. Licensing Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"A companyÃ which chooses a licensing agreement will enter into an arrangement where a licensor grants the rights to intangible property to the company for a certain period of time. During this period the licensor receives a royalty fee from the company for the use of the property.Ã¢â¬ Licensing can be a good option for a firm with manager know-how as there is little control over technology, and also comes with little risk. Franchising Ã¢â¬â Franchising is a specialized form of licensing where the firm paying the royalty fee to use the property, must also follow a set of rules on how to run the business. This can be good for firms with management know-how. Joint venture Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"A joint venture entails establishing a firm that is jointly owned by two or more otherwise independent firms.Ã¢â¬ Joint ventures can be beneficial as there is often the opportunity to learn from your partner as well, as any risks are shared between the partners. Wholly owned subsidiaries Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"Wholly owned subsidiaries occur when a firm owns 100 percent of its stock.Ã¢â¬ When establishing a wholly owned subsidiary in a new foreign market the company has the choice of setting up an entirely new business in the new market (Greenfield Venture), or it can acquire and already running business within the knew market and use its resources to promote the companies product line. Choosing an Entry Mode All modes of entry a company can chose from have both advantages and disadvantages. When attempting to choose the proper mode of entry a company will be forced to make a decision based on pressures of cost reductions, however the best entry mode for a company will depend mainly on that firms competitive advantage, whether it is technological know-how or management know-how. If a firm has a competitive advantage that is based on technological know-how, generally a wholly owned subsidiary is preferred, as control over technology is very necessary. By owning the whole subsidiary the company is giving up no aspect of control over their core competency. Ã¢â¬Å"The main competitive advantage of many service firms is that of the managers know how to run the business.Ã¢â¬ When this is the case, foreign franchises tend to be the preferred method of entry. By franchising the company has control over how the quality of the product or service. When choosing a mode of entry it could often depend on the amount a company gives control over its resources. Exporting offers the least amount of control,Ã and a wholly owned subsidiary offers the most control. Conclusion Although entering a new market and expanding a company globally can provide numerous benefits, it is something that needs to be done with proper strategic planning. Trade liberalization has caused heavy competition in many foreign markets and if proper research and planning isnÃ¢â¬â¢t flowed through, a company could fail in an international market. When choosing a new market, the company should loo at locations that will provide some benefit such as lower costs for manufacturing a product. Ã¢â¬Å"Create value for customers by lowering production costs and making products more attractive through superior design, functionality and quality.Ã¢â¬ Value creation is measure by the difference between what values a customer puts on a specific product, and the actual cost to make the product. The higher the value creation the more profit the business will make on that product. By reducing costs to increase revenue, the company is also increasing the value of the product, known as low cost strategy. Another way to increase value of a product value is through a differentiation strategy. By differentiating products from that of a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s competitor, they are increasing the consumers perceived value of the product based, on its different features. When choosing an overall strategy it is important that it align with the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s main goals and values, as well as with the host countries preferences. Generally a transnational global strategy provides companies with the most benefits, it is also the hardest and most complex strategy to implement. Once a strategy is chosen for the expansion across borders, the company then needs to research and choose which market to enter, when to enter the market, and at what scale to enter the market at. All three of these decisions are very important to the success of the business in the new market. The company should choose a market that will provide some cost benefit to it, such as cost savings manufacturing. Once a market is chosen, a time and scale need to be established for entry. The company needs to decide if it will enter with a large presence or if it will enter with limited exposure to better adapt to the new market. The company will pick between six modes of entry, mainly based on their core competencies. If the company has a lot of technological know- how they will likely chose a mode that offers more control such as a wholly owned subsidiary. If t is aÃ managerial know-how based competency, it will likely choose a mode with less control such as a franchise. It is important to consider every advantage weighed against the disadvantages when choosing a mode of entry. Works Cited Anca Gheorghiu, A. G. (2010). Entering New Markets Ã¢â¬â a Challenge in Times of Crisis. Retrieved June 2013, from Cornell University Library: http://arxiv.org/abs/1010.6050 Arnold, D. (2003, October 17). Strategies for Entering and Developing International Markets. Retrieved July 2013, from Financial Times Press: http://www.ftpress.com/articles/article.aspx?p=101588 Burher Business. (2011, October 20). Korean KBQ Burger is from McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s, Not Food Truck. Retrieved July 2013, from Burger Business: http://www.burgerbusiness.com/?p=8303 Cebuc, G. (2007). The Role of Strategic Alliances in International Businesses. Romanian Economic and Business Review , 2 (4), 27-34. Charles W.L. Hill, T. M. (2009). Global Business Today. McGraw-Hill Ryerson. Cheong-A Lee, H.-Y. B. (2009). Culture and Foreign Market Entry into Korean Firms. International Journal of Business Strategy , 9 (2), 192-200. Enderwick, P. (2009). Large Emerging Markets (LEMs) and International Strategy. Internationa l Marketing Review , 26 (1), 7-16. Graham, J. P. (2004). Analyzing foreign Markets. (JPG Consulting) Retrieved July 2013, from Going Global: http://www.going-global.com/articles/analyzing_foreign_markets.htm Joseph Johnson, a. G. (2008). Drivers of Success for Market Entry into China and India. Journal of Marketing , 72, 1-13. Kate Gillespie, J.-P. J. (2007). Global Marketing (2nd Edition ed.). Boston, MA, USA: Houghton Mifflin.
Tuesday, January 7, 2020
Recombinant DNA, or rDNA, is DNA that is formed by combining DNA from different sources through a process called genetic recombination. Often, the sources are from different organisms. Generally speaking, DNA from different organisms has the same chemical general structure. For this reason, it is possible to create DNA from different sources by combining strands. Key Takeaways Recombinant DNA technology combines DNA from different sources to create a different sequence of DNA.Recombinant DNA technology is used in a wide range of applications from vaccine production to the production of genetically engineered crops.As recombinant DNA technology advances, technique precision must be balanced by ethical concerns. Recombinant DNA has numerous applications in science and medicine. One well-known use of recombinant DNA is in the production of insulin. Prior to the advent of this technology, insulin largely came from animals. Insulin can now be produced more efficiently by using organisms like E. coli and yeast. By inserting the gene for insulin from humans in these organisms, insulin can be produced. The Process of Genetic Recombination In the 1970s, scientists found a class of enzymes that severed DNA in specific nucleotide combinations. These enzymes are known as restriction enzymes. That discovery allowed other scientists to isolate DNA from different sources and to create the first artificial rDNA molecule. Other discoveries followed, and today a number of methods for recombining DNA exist. While several scientists were instrumental in developing these recombinant DNA processes, Peter Lobban, a graduate student under the tutelage of Dale Kaiser in the Biochemistry Department of Stanford University, is usually credited with being the first to suggest the idea of recombinant DNA. Others at Stanford were instrumental in developing the original techniques used. While mechanisms can differ widely, the general process of genetic recombination involves the following steps. A specific gene (for example, a human gene) is identified and isolated.This gene is inserted into a vector. A vector is the mechanism by which the genetic material of the gene is carried into another cell. Plasmids are an example of a common vector.The vector is inserted into another organism. This can be achieved by a number of different gene transfer methods like sonication, micro-injections, and electroporation.After the introduction of the vector, cells that have the recombinant vector are isolated, selected, and cultured.The gene is expressed so that the desired product can eventually be synthesized, usually in large quantities. Examples of Recombinant DNA Technology rDNA Examples. Ã red_moon_rise/E/Getty Images Recombinant DNA technology is used in a number of applications including vaccines, food products, pharmaceutical products, diagnostic testing, and genetically engineered crops.Ã Vaccines Vaccines with viral proteins produced by bacteria or yeast from recombined viral genes are considered safer than those created by more traditional methods and containing viral particles. Other Pharmaceutical Products As mentioned earlier, insulin is another example of the use of recombinant DNA technology. Previously, insulin was obtained from animals, primarily from the pancreas of pigs and cows, but using recombinant DNA technology to insert the human insulin gene into bacteria or yeast makes it simpler to produce larger quantities. A number of other pharmaceutical products, like antibiotics and human protein replacements, are produced by similar methods. Food Products A number of food products are produced using recombinant DNA technology. One common example is the chymosin enzyme, an enzyme used in making cheese. Traditionally, it is found in rennet which is prepared from the stomachs of calves, but producing chymosin through genetic engineering is much easier and faster (and does not require the killing of young animals). Today, a majority of the cheese produced in the United States is made with genetically modified chymosin. Diagnostic Testing Recombinant DNA technology is also used in the diagnostic testing field. Genetic testing for a wide range of conditions, like cystic fibrosis and muscular dystrophy, have benefited from the use of rDNA technology. Crops Recombinant DNA technology has been used to produce both insect- and herbicide-resistant crops. The most common herbicide-resistant crops are resistant to the application of glyphosate, a common weed killer. Such crop production is not without issue as many question the long term safety of such genetically engineered crops. The Future of Genetic Manipulation Scientists are excited about the future of genetic manipulation. While techniques on the horizon differ, all have in common the precision with which the genome can be manipulated. One such example is CRISPR-Cas9. Is is a molecule that allows for the insertion or deletion of DNA in an extremely precise manner. CRISPR is an acronym for Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats while Cas9 is shorthand for CRISPR associated protein 9. Over the last several years, the scientific community has been excited about prospects for its usage. Associated processes are faster, more precise, and less expensive than other methods. While much of the advances allow for more precise techniques, ethical questions are also being raised. For example, because we have the technology to do something, does that mean that we should do it? What are the ethical implications of more precise genetic testing, particularly as it relates to human genetic diseases? From the early work by Paul Berg who organized the International Congress on Recombinant DNA Molecules in 1975, to the current guidelines set forth by The National Institutes of Health (NIH), a number of valid ethical concerns have been raised and addressed. The NIH guidelines, note that they detail safety practices and containment procedures for basic and clinical research involving recombinant or synthetic nucleic acid molecules, including the creation and use of organisms and viruses containing recombinant or synthetic nucleic acid molecules. The guidelines are designed to give researchers proper conduct guidelines for conducting research in this field. Bioethicists contend that science must always be ethically balanced, so that advancement is beneficial to humankind, rather than harmful. Sources Kochunni, Deena T, and Jazir Haneef. Ã¢â¬Å"5 Steps in Recombinant DNA Technology or RDNA Technology.Ã¢â¬ 5 Steps in Recombinant DNA Technology or RDNA Technology ~, www.biologyexams4u.com/2013/10/steps-in-recombinant-dna-technology.html.Life Sciences. Ã¢â¬Å"The Invention of Recombinant DNA TechnologyÃ LSF MagazineÃ Medium.Ã¢â¬ Medium, LSF Magazine, 12 Nov. 2015, medium.com/lsf-magazine/the-invention-of-recombinant-dna-technology-e040a8a1fa22.Ã¯ » ¿Ã¢â¬Å"NIH Guidelines - Office of Science Policy.Ã¢â¬ National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, osp.od.nih.gov/biotechnology/nih-guidelines/.
Monday, December 30, 2019
Truman, the Atomic Bomb, and the Shaping of the Postwar World ABSTRACT Historians have questioned the decision to drop atomic bombs on Japan in 1945. Evidence shows that President Truman weighed not only military information in his decision to use the bomb, but also considered postwar politics and foreign policy when he considered dropping the atomic bomb on Japan. An analysis of his personal papers offers a different reasoning for using the bomb than what was commonly known at the time. The discrepancy between TrumanÃ¢â¬â¢s public and private reasoning will be discussed. Many cultural and racial beliefs about the Japanese played into the decision to drop the atomic bomb. The private papers of President Truman as well as theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦3. The decision to drop the bomb was unanimously supported by TrumanÃ¢â¬â¢s military advisers. False. General Dwight D. Eisenhaower, Assistant Secretary of War McCloy and other top military leaders urged Truman not to use the atomic bomb, or encouraged the use of other methods first. 4. Japan would not surrender unless defeated on her own soil. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think so. Unfortunately, we will never know the answer to that assumption. It is clear that once the United States broke the Japanese code, information that was not made publicly known by the Japanese could be used to make decisions in policy. Japan sought peace overtures in the Soviet Union. Truman also knew of the emperorÃ¢â¬â¢s attempts to seek a peace. The purpose of this paper is to examine the pressures on Harry Truman that led him to authorize the use of atomic bombs on Japan. There are discrepancies in the public reasons that Truman professed for using atomic bombs. His personal diaries record a different reasoning than was presented to the people of the United States and the rest of the world. This paper will also examine the scientistsÃ¢â¬â¢ opposition to using the atomic bomb. In the video Day After Trinity, some scientists seemed to have a very abstract view of how devastating the bomb would be in realistic human terms. Once the news of the bomb reached the scientists, they seemed shocked and surprised at how savage the weapon was. IShow MoreRelatedUnited States Nuclear Program Essay1195 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesgovern themselves. July 4, 1776 the Declaration of Independence showed the world that America was free from someone elseÃ¢â¬â¢s rule. As a result, democracy spread around the world as a government by the people, fo r the people, with America at its forefront as a world rolemodel and superpower. The United States Nuclear Program from 1945-1985, was a direct result of the threat of communism to governments and democracies around the world. 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Saturday, December 21, 2019
CONTENTS: - INTRODUCTION - BACKGROUND OF ANCIENT EGYPT PYRAMIDS - THE STEP PYRAMID of Pharaoh Djoser - THE GREAT PYRAMID of Pharaoh Khufu - CONCLUSION - BIBLIOGRAPHY FOOTNOTES This essay focuses on two different types of pyramids; the Step pyramid which was the first pyramid and the Great pyramid, which was the largest pyramid built in Egypt. The essay investigates the meaning of the selected forms for the Egyptian culture and explains their dialog with the cosmos. The architecture of ancient Egypt is one of the most important civilizations in history, which developed of different structures and great architectural monuments along the River Nile. The Egypt pyramids were constructed for the pharaoh, as a tomb. TheirÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Then he achieved building the first pyramid by placing large series of stone on top of each other. Arnold states, Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢From the earliest 3rd dynasty step pyramids in Egypt that they were built with accreditation walls or layersÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢.  Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢The accreditation layers were sloped inside at an angle. It was probably done to provide structural durability. Each part of the pyramid between two steps is referred to as a mastaba. Each accreditation wall or layer shaped one step of the step pyramid and defined the base of the next mastaba by reducing the height of the wall layer by layer.Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢  Intended to hold his mummified body, Pharaoh Djosers Step Pyramid at Saqqara began as a traditional, flat-roofed mastaba. But by the end of his 19-year reign, in 2611 B.C.E, it had risen to six stepped layers and stood 62 meters high. It was the largest building of its time. Extensive use of stone, wood, reeds, or other materials made the tomb more durable than its mud-brick structure. The Step Pyramid complex was enclosed by a 10 meters wall and included courtyards, temples, and chapels covering nearly 40 acres (16 hectares) the size of a large town in the third millennium B.C. As in earlier mastaba tombs, the Step Pyramids burial chambers were underground, hidden in a maze of tunnels. However the tomb was stolen, and only left from the third king of Egypts 3rd dynasty, Djoser is his mummified left foot. The StepShow MoreRelatedAncient Egyptian Pyramids Architecture1566 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Ancient Egyptian pyramids are engineering marvels that continue to astonish both past and modern day historians and scholars with its incredible architectural feats. Behind the magnificent creations was a group that employed their knowledge of advanced mathematics and building techniques to create such an impressive subject of wonder. The mystery involving the work needed physically to produce this structural behemoth remains a popular topic of discussion between historians and engineers whoRead MoreThe Great Pyramid Of Giza930 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesand mysterious feats of architecture ever assembled, The Great Pyramid. Located approximately 5 miles west of the Nile River near the city of Cairo, Egypt, The Great Pyramid is part of a larger complex called the Giza Necropolis, which also houses the Great Sphinx, and two smaller pyramids. It is said to have been built by the enslaved citizens of Khufu, second ruler of the 4th dynasty, and son of Snefru. Although archaeologists have since disproved that theory. The pyramids are said to have been builtRead MoreThe Cryptic Secrets Of Egyptian Pyramids1719 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSecrets of Egyptian Pyramids The pyramid-shaped masonry architectures are called Pyramids, and there are eighty of them known as ancient Egyptian Pyramids. The Egyptian Pyramids are the products of a slavery country, but they are also the great accomplishments of ancient people. Since the first discovery of the Egyptian Pyramids, many scientists have been dedicated in ancient Egypt study. After years of researching on the earliest Egyptian Pyramid, Pyramid of Djoser, and the most famous Egyptian PyramidRead MoreThe Mysteries of the Construction of Pyramids in Egypt571 Words Ã |Ã 2 Pagesworld has always been how the great pyramids of Egypt were built. It was a long time ago, long before we had bulldozers, cranes and all that heavy-duty equipment. This leads some groups of people to believe that because Egyptians were Ã¢â¬Å"primitiveÃ¢â¬ , there is no way they could have done all the work themselves. Thus the most logical explanation as to who could have helped our helpless Egyptians had to be aliens. Alie ns had traveled from afar to build these giant pyramids for whatever reason. (1) The immenseRead MoreComparing Mexicos Pyramids to Egypts3404 Words Ã |Ã 14 PagesThe more than 100 pyramids that punctuate the west bank of the Nile have intrigued mankind for millennia. Numerous articles and books have discussed the pyramids of Egypt and the wondrous tombs, sculpture, jewelry, and artwork they secreted. However, pyramids are found in various locations in the world beyond EgyptÃâ"most notably in South America, Mesoamerica, Mesopotamia, India, and Cambodia. Is it possible that the ancient civilizations of Central America and South America, as an example, somehowRead MoreThe Great Pyramids of Giza are located in northern part of Egypt right besides the Nile River. The700 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesThe Great Pyramids of Giza are located in northern part of Egypt right besides the Nile River. The oldest and major Ã¢â¬Å"is the only surviving structure out of the famed seven wonders of the ancient world.Ã¢â¬ The other wonders are: The Colossus of Rhodes, The Statue o f Zeus at Olympia, The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, The Hanging Gardens of Babylon, The Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, and The Lighthouse of Alexandria. The Great Pyramids was constructed for King Khufu son of King Sneferu. Three separate andRead MoreEdifices to the Gods and Social Perception of A Nation530 Words Ã |Ã 2 Pagesbeen the staple for the ancient Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilization yet their purposes proved somewhat different. For the Sumerian civilization, the construction of the ancient monuments served a multiple purpose as social, economic and religious centers and in the latter half of the third millennium B.C.E. the Ur-based civilization focused on building schemes for their administrative, economic and agricultural benefits. In contrast, the Egyptian civilization during the peak of the Fourth DynastyÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreEssay Tha Influence of Egyptian Art on Modern World1164 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesTha Influence of Egyptian Art on Modern World Egyptian art has journeyed through the centuries as one of the most influential phenomenons in human civilization. From the Greeks to the Romans to the people of today, Egyptians and their beautiful representations in art and architecture have proven a legacy in the creations of certain landmarks, statues, and even advertisements. The Greeks derived many of their statues from Egyptian sculptures, such as the Kouros 600 B.C. The Roman emperor AugustusRead MoreCreating A Global Treasure Hunt1547 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagessurveyor William Gosse on July 19, 1873 in honour of Chief Secretary of South Australia, Sir Henry Ayers. Pyramids of Giza- 29Ã ºN, 31Ã ºE Is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in Egypt. Also known as the Pyramid of Khufu or the Pyramid of Cheops is the oldest of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. It was built as a tomb over 10-20 year period At 481 feet, the Great Pyramid was the tallest man-made structure in the world for over 3,800 years. Eiffel tower- 48Ã ºN, 2Ã ºE Eiffel TowerRead MoreThe Pyramids Of Giza Pyramids929 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthe Great pyramids of Giza. The pyramids of Giza in total are three, these are some of the most famous pyramids in the world and some of the most famous landmarks of Egypt. Growing up I would always think of one day traveling to egypt and climbing to the top. This is why I decided to do my research paper on this work of art and great monument of art history. With this paper I was able to research into detail about; The Great Pyramids of Giza, which include The Pyramid (Pyramid of Khufu)